4.1.1 The Council is committed to ensuring that new developments will be located to help minimise the distance people need to travel, and be designed to make it easy for everyone to move around the city and access jobs and services by sustainable modes of transport.
4.2 Policy background
4.2.1 Draft Transport Strategy for Cambridge and South Cambridgeshire – Key transport objectives for Cambridge and South Cambridgeshire are set out in this document. The Draft Transport Strategy is being progressed alongside the Draft Cambridge Local Plan 2014 and the Draft South Cambridgeshire Local Plan 2014. The purpose of the strategy is to
Provide a detailed policy framework and programme of schemes for the area
Support the Cambridge and South Cambridgeshire Local Plans and take account of committed and predicted levels of growth, detailing the transport infrastructure and services necessary to deliver this growth.
4.2.2 Cambridge Local Plan 2014 Submission Version – The key relevant Local Plan policies are:
Policy 5 – Strategic Transport Infrastructure. Development proposals must be consistent with and contribute to the implementation of the transport strategies and priorities set out in the Transport Strategy for Cambridge and South Cambridgeshire.
Policy 80 – Supporting sustainable access to development. This policy prioritises access by walking, cycling and public transport in new developments.
Policy 81 – Mitigating the transport impact of development. This policy ensures that sufficient information is supplied with all development proposals that the transport impact is suitably assessed, usually in the form of a transport assessment; a travel plan will accompany all major development; and that reasonable and proportionate financial contributions/ mitigation measures are secured where necessary to make the transport impact of development acceptable.
Policy 82 – Parking management.
4.3 What can be funded by CIL?
4.3.1 Funding for transport infrastructure required as a result of incremental growth will normally be required by the Council as part of the CIL and other mainstream funding programmes. Strategic transport improvements to support growth, including measures to promote walking, cycling, prioritise public transport and highways traffic calming and capacity improvements where appropriate could benefit from CIL funds.
4.4 What can be funded by planning obligations?
4.4.1 Most developments generate new transport movements. In the case of many development schemes, specific works and improvements will be required either on-site or off-site to mitigate the direct impact of the development scheme on the transport network and to make the proposed development acceptable, for example improvements to junctions, provision of traffic signals, traffic calming, walking and cycling related measures, public transport enhancements, etc. These can be described as development specific transport works and are normally required to be implemented as part of the development scheme.
4.4.2 Obligations will be sought where there is a requirement to improve existing, or construct new, highway infrastructure in order to access development in a safe and appropriate manner or to mitigate the effects of the development on the highway network.
4.4.3 Obligations will also be sought where there are requirements to improve non-car accessibility infrastructure in order to access development in a safe and appropriate manner or to mitigate the effects of the development on the transport networks.
4.4.4 There is no threshold below which a transport obligation may not be required and there are no types of development that would be exempt from transport infrastructure requirements.
Types of obligations
4.4.5 Cambridgeshire County Council is the Highway Authority for the Cambridge City Council area. Cambridge City Council consults Cambridgeshire County Council on planning proposals that affect the highway network. Cambridgeshire County Council provides advice on the scope of obligations for transport infrastructure works and measures where it is considered there is a need to mitigate the impact of new development on the transport networks. A range of transport measures may be required as a result of individual schemes, however, the main types of obligations are likely to be, inter-alia:
Travel Plans - A Travel Plan is a package of measures to reduce car travel to and from a proposed site, and to encourage the promotion of more sustainable forms of transport by increasing the awareness of travel options, such as walking and cycling, and through the provision of facilities to support such options. Travel Plans should include targets for the reduction in travel related impacts and include resources for supporting and maintaining the travel plan. Travel Plans are likely to be secured via planning conditions on most sites, but may require a planning obligation on larger or more complex development proposals;
Works required to secure safe access and egress from the development site to the adjoining highway network or to mitigate the direct impact of the development on the off-site road network;
Provision of internal roads to adoptable standard;
Site-specific pedestrian and cycle facilities;
Site-specific measures to improve public transport services and facilities;
The provision, removal or relocation of street furniture; dropped kerbs; pedestrian crossings; traffic lights; signage; or trees;
Contributions to enforce car free and car capped development;
Contributions to car clubs; and
Contributions to low emission vehicle infrastructure.
4.4.6 Provision for on-site facilities can be made through planning conditions and a Section 38 or Section 278 Agreement under the Highways Act 1980, and they may also be secured through a S.106 planning obligation.
4.4.7 In most circumstances the obligation will be on the developer to implement the approved works via the relevant legal agreements. However there may be some circumstances where it would be acceptable to contribute a sum of money to the local highways authority to implement the work on the developer’s behalf. Where improvements are secured in this way, developers will be required to either develop a costed up scheme in consultation with the local Highways Authority or commission the local Highway Authority to design and implement the scheme.
4.4.8 Where a developer is obliged to implement a transport improvement through a planning obligation, or has made a financial contribution to the local highway authority to implement an item of transport infrastructure directly related to a specific development, the timing of implementation will be clearly specified in the planning obligation agreement relating to the development. The trigger for payment (of the financial contribution) is likely to be related to the implementation of the development.